Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Characteristics of The Fruits of Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch, Growing Wild in Kashmir Valley, India
Introduction: Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch belongs to family Apiaceae of genus Bunium, which is comprised of about 166 species and is widely distributed in Kashmir valley. It is used medicinally in dyspepsia and diarrhea, digestive and urinay tract infections, chronic gastiritis, colitis, anticonvulsant, antiasthma and diuretic. Objective: The current study deals with Pharmacognostic parameters of the fruits of Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch. Materials and Methods: The fruits of Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch was collected, shade dried for about 2 weeks and powdered and the powered fruit part of plant material was evaluated for Pharmacognostic parameters by standard methods. The hydroalcholic extract of Bunium persicum was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening for the presence of various Phytoconstituents. The microscopy of the fruits of Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch reveals the presence of Part of a group of sclereids from the mesocarp, thicker-walled sclereids with adjacent thin walled parenchyma, Fragment of vitta, Thin-walled fibre and Calcium-oxalate crystals. Results: Proximate analysis of the fruits of Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch showed that the dried fruit powder has 34.0 % Total ash value, 29.0 % Acid insoluble ash value, 9.5 % Sulphated ash value. Loss on drying was found to be 6.2 %. The hydroalcholic extract of Bunium persicum was found to contain various phytoconstituents. Fluorescence analysis of the fruit powder showed the behavour, when treated with different chemical reagents. Conclusion: The current study displayed the microscopical characters, the preliminary phytochemical screening and the proximate analysis of the fruits of Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch. Data composed from such studies can be used as standard in the quality control of this plant as a herbal medicine for treatment of various diseases.